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Urban Living in the Rich World

Page history last edited by catrin treanor 4 years ago

What are the issues facing urban areas


In the rich world cities are facing problems such as...

  1. CBD Decline and Rejuvenation
  2. The impact of government strategies from the 1990s on Inner Cities.
  3. Ethnic Segregation
  4. Transport and pollution
  5. Housing Shortages


1.CBD decline and rejuvenation:


In the news - WATCH THIS


18 town centre shops close a day! - 


Birmingham is a good example of a CBD 'fighting back' - the City Council's Regeneration pages.

Tourist Information gives a good overview of projects such as The Bull Ring and The Mailbox and more recently The Cube


Map of the CBD


The Old Bullring - how it used to be in the 60s


2. The impact of government strategies from the 1990s on the inner city:


City Challenge Partnerships Schemes e.g. Hulme, Manchester....


 Where is Hulme?


in order to understand why the government's strategies in the 1990s were needed you need to understand the problems of attempts to improve the inner cities before then!  In the 1960's COMPREHENSIVE REDEVELOPMENT was used  - this was the knocking down of vast areas of inner city terraces that had fallen into disrepair because of out migration of people and industries. They were then replaced with high rise flats eg... 

THE PROBLEMS of 1960s Hulme Cresents - WATCH this

How Hulme used to look!


 Hulme is an inner city area of Manchester. In the 1990s the City Council bid for funding under the City Challenge Scheme. Hulme received £37 million to regenerate the area. The task was to replace the housing (The Crescents) that had been built in the 1960s to replace the terraces that had once stood there.

The City Challenge partnership was HOLISTIC  - this means stakeholders worked together from the start. It attempted to enhance the housing, environment, community facilities and shopping provision.


summary of Hulme before and after



TITLE:     A case study of inner city improvement since the 1990s - Hulme, City Challenge Scheme.


  • Answer question 4 on page 159
  • include a map to show where Hulme is
  • Add to your information by following some of these links...
  • You could include annotated photos of the past and now.



It was seen to be a success because of the involvement of the local community in the planning decisions - designing the housing -  The local residents offered suggestions such as rejecting cul-de-sacs in favour of street grids, so that people would feel safer . They also  asked for balconies in flats that overlooked streets and squares.



Inner City Improvement since the 1990s - Hulme, Manchester is an example of the government's City Challenge initiative.  

before and after aerial photos 

Hulme today




3. Ethnic Segregation:


Read the information below before attempting the questions...


1. What is ethnic segregation? (read the top of page 159 = When areas become dominated by particular racial or national groups)

2. Why does it happen? - complete this sorting exercise.

3. What problems arise as a result of ethnic segregation? (see below)

4. What strategies are there to support ethnic communities? - use examples from London (see below)

5. How does London benefit from its ethnic diversity?



In the UK  there  are migrants  from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Canada, The USA and so on!  There are also people from the other 27 EU countries and beyond.  Take a look at London   


London is truly ‘the world under one roof’. More than 40 large communities are of people born outside Britain.  More than a third of Londoners are from black, Asian and minority ethnic groups.  Londoners speak over 300 different languages. Black, Asian and minority ethnic Londoners help to make London a dynamic city. However, shocking differences in wealth, poverty and life expectancy show that not all Londoners benefit from the city’s success.


Multiculturalism is not new, many families that migrated here, particularly those from old British Colonies, now have possibly their 4th generation of their family established in the UK. For example many Caribbean and Asian peoples. .


It has been said that London is the world in one city!

Minority ethnic people make up 29 per cent of Londoners. The capital is more ethnically diverse than any other part of the country, and London owes much of its character, wealth and cultural appeal to this fact.




Unfortunately many of the capital’s ethnic minority communities suffer inflated levels of poverty, violence, unemployment and ill health...

  • Poverty and unemployment
    Most of the city’s ethnic minority groups are likely to experience unemployment rates twice the national average. This has a direct impact on wealth. The Mayor’s report ‘London Divided’ showed that 55 per cent of black children and 73 per cent of Bangladeshi and Pakistani children are living in poverty.
  • Racial violence
    Ethnic minorities are at risk from discrimination which can take the form of violent attacks. Racially-motivated incidents represented 12 per cent of all crime against minority ethnic people compared with 2 per cent for white people.
  • Health
    There is a powerful link between poverty and well-being: if you’re in a high-risk group for poverty you are also more likely to suffer health problems. The 1991 census revealed that the Bangladeshi community (the poorest ethnic group) had a much higher rate of long-term illness than any other ethnic group.


Strategies used in London  to manage its diverse ethnic community? Some examples:


  •  It promotes an 'Equal Life Chances for All' Strategy 
  • Councils offer translation services to support ethnic communities. and The Equal Life Chances for All strategy make English Language lessons readily available 
  • Health provision is tailored to each community's needs.  - for example female doctors are preferred by some ethnic communities.
  • London has  a 'Diversity works for All' strategy to support businesses in London  and their workforces



Examples of how London benefits:


 It  has been good for the UK because it contributes to our cultural life, from the  huge variety of food that is available to the music that we listen to. The BBC has an Asian Music Radio Channel for example. Other advantages include the great exposure people get to other religions, languages and cultural parties, such as the Notting Hill Carnival every August.  The UK also benefits from huge cultural events celebrating this multiculturalism, such as the celebration of Chinese New Year.  Multiculturalism in the UK  highlights what a broadly tolerant society we are.


Situated just three miles from the city, Newham takes in much of London's revitalised docklands.  Newham has one of the most diverse populations in the UK. More than 100 languages are spoken locally - from Albanian to Zhuang.

 - read about Newham's latest policies for its diverse communities and why they are being criticised. BBC NEWS


The Portuguese community in Stockwell


The Notting Hill Carnival is London's celebration of diversity...

China Town...



  It has been said that London is the world in one city! How can you represent this? a picture montage or a wordle ?




4. Traffic Congestion and Pollution:


Answer question 3 on page 161


you can stretch yourself by following some of these links too...


In the news! WALK!!


London's Transport Strategies   - tasks at the end of this document all about congestion charging - use London as your example


new bus for London


The M25




Boris said that average road speeds in London have in fact increased just a little to an "admittedly not supersonic" 9.4 miles an hour!


Closer to home - Guildford

Other UK examples?  Manchester MetroLink

and beyond? San Francisco 


5. Housing Shortages

 it is generally accepted that the UK needs at least 200 000 new homes a year to keep up with demand. But most of the demand is not because of a rising population, it is down to the growth in households, for example more than 7 million people in the UK now live alone this is about 30% of all households.

The demand for housing is also not equally distributed across the UK - it is greatest in the South East where economic growth is strongest.


Guildford Borough Council estimates it needs to build over 300 houses a year - where should it put them? In the news!  and take a look at all the housing proposals around Guildford here - interactive!


and  take a look at the Guildford Green Belt Action Group website - what is their argument? 

Wisley Airfield housing proposals


Follow the tasks on this handout - you will find some of the links below useful too


1. Government policies include building on brownfield rather than greenfield sites when possible to limit urban sprawl. WATCH THIS then - Sort out these arguments for building on brownfield or greenfield land

2. Councils in London have policies to encourage people to live away from the city or to downsize and live in property better suited to the them in order to free up housing for bigger families and those that need to remain in London. - Wandsworth's Room to Move Scheme

London's 'Seaside and Country Homes' Scheme for people in council housing aged over 60

 3. Take a look at the graph here - the demand for housing is increasing


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